The Age of Science as a Religion
How Modern Science may overcome Mythological Forms of Thinking and Religious Logic of Dogmatism
'The transformation process of informational society into a scientific one is not guided by philosophy, or more precisely, is not guided by any kind of the explicated ontology which can be good enough as a foundation of the social and individual life sense, the sense of the scientific progress, ethics, aesthetics and values in general. But, starting from Einstein's controversial belief that "physics is an ontological science", or the science which deals with being, we would very quickly realize what we really need to comprehend, the essence of our technology based civilization and to establish its conscious development control. That what we need is the universal thought or unified comprehension of the humanities and the exact sciences at the ontological level, i.e. their synthesis in the "New Ontology".
What are the possibilities for the development of a "New Ontology" and establishing of a deeper level of a thinking in the modern theoretical physics, and what are the consequences of such an approach in the social, psychological and technical sys tems?
Historically viewed, the industrial revolutions of the nineteenth century, the rational and empirical thoughts which were developing parallel with such revolutions as well as the philosophy of positivism have significantly changed the relation between the science and the religion. The people began trusting more in the experiment and the applied science than in the religious allegories and mythological tales. Such sub stitution of the religious spiritual contents by the scientific ones, was an so called imperative of the time which had appeared even in the sphere of the genuine spiritu alism. (Sir William Crooks, the famous and rigid English scientist, for instance, in vestigated by experiments the phenomena of the mediums over the whole period from 1869 till his death in 1918, trying to establish in the physical sense the scien tific truth about the effects of so called "Psychical Forces").
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The exaggerations of positivism in the philosophy have often been criticized (identi fication of the spirit and matter, deduction of the science to the sensual perception, the purely inductive logic, physicism, etc.). But, whether deeply enough?
It is obvious that modern theoretical physics is concerned, more and more seriously with the problem of being, taking the role of the ontology in the scientific world, be coming thus the real philosophy in the classical sense. Same as the Greek sages in the long past, the modern physicists are concerned with the concepts of time and space, the elementary unit of the matter (atom), the unified power, and they also consider the problem of the very origin of the world, this most essential philosophi cal question which still stays unanswered i.e. to which different scientific disci plines and mainly religion offer incomplete or tautological answers through tautol ogy-
In his works Course of Positive Philosophy and Positivistic Catechism, August Comte (1798-1857), presents the idea on the creation of an universal religion of the mankind, pointing out the unchangeable relative nature of the human knowledge and stressing also that the human brain may recognize only the relations but not the absolute causes and the absolute substance. In the general opinion, Comte in his works expressed the quintessence of the French revolutional spirit, particularly in the idea of the sociocraty which is the key of the whole positivistic doctrine.
But although the spirit of the French revolution overcame the whole Europe and en abled faster development of the experimental sciences, yet in the twentieth century the question "Whether it is possible to replace the religion with the science?" re mained unanswered. The importance of this question has dramatically been stressed in the informatical society which relies on the scientific knowledge. What is looked for is a framework within which the existence could be organized i.e. the sense and value of the life and work of billions of individuals who use telecommu nication systems and electronics in their everyday life. The primary collision between the East and the West is neither in the political nor in the economic spheres but in the false disagreement of spiritual and materialistic concepts of the world, that is in the undeclared war waged by the humanistic and the exact sciences for the dominance over the human spirit. Because of that even the natural laws of the development of a society, acting through the abstract form of the state organism, are declared firstly through the free thought and the art. As the result, in the society which tends to the scientific, the main center of power are the informal groups of free people (most often they are institutionally unorganized, or at the places where they work they propose their own research programs). The scale of five levels of power is usually formed, consisting primarily of the military and university institu tions and the foundations where the ideas are generated, then the intelligence services which make selection of people and pass the ideas for realization; then follow the religious groups which gather the masses and which are also an important factor of social stability. Then the financial centers which stimulate or prevent develop ment of certain trends by investing money in such institutions (energy) - for exam-
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ple: electronics, or withdrawing money from them - example: cosmic program, automobile industry etc. Only in the fourth place are those who are publicly in volved in the politics as their main activity; in the fifth place are the police and the military as an instrument of physical correction of activities towards the main state paradigm.
It is obvious therefore, that the real crisis begins when the first and the second levels of power, i.e. when the scientific and the intelligence segments fail to accomplish their main task, i.e. fail to transform the highly abstract natural laws into the visible levers of the social development. The extenuating circumstance which alleviates dysfunction of science (nuclear technology) and the religious institutions (naive Christian ethics and eschatology) represents the global correlation and openness of the telecommunication systems which enables every individual person to introduce own information into the system and in this way to act on the global scale.
The more and more expensive experimental scientific researches which produce the more and more modest results show that the new concept of the world is required, i.e. the redefining of the philosophy of scientific society and of final meaning of the scientific progress which will open the new fundamental fields of the researches. This will be possibly only by the inspired philosophical logic applied in the estab lishing of deep stands of the new ontology which will include ideas about the being, time, space, matter, and confirm them experimentally, linking thus the invisible world of principles with the experience.
Now, the question is whether the informational, i.e. the scientific society, which is in its embrional stage, is capable nowadays to explicate its specific form of tran scendental belief in the form of the metaphysics of the exact sciences which will be also valid in the politics, sociology and psychology?
Let us now try to define in the most general meaning the main goals of the scientific progress of the mankind, namely the goals which are hardly attainable and which in the serious scientific discussions are reluctantly mentioned. They are:
transfer of human labor into apparatuses (as the slaves of the scientific society;
technical-technological slavery holding as the motive of the development and the
projection of the end results of researches in the sphere of robotics, cybernetics
conservation of the man as a living system (in the physical sense);
development of human brain replica;
discovering the endless source of energy which is not succumb to conversion of
so called "clean energy".
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As a matter of fact, it could be presumed that the ontological link of the humanistic and exact sciences does not exist, i.e. that the univocal correspondence of their basic notations does not exist. Such relations are reflected in the deeper level of the cos-mological causes which unify within the joint programs of the study even the psychology and the quantum mechanics, Euclidean geometry and the ethics, theory of the numbers and politics etc.
If we conceive the above mentioned relations of the deepest notions of the exact and humanistic sciences as the feature of the physical continuum, i.e. if we adopt the model of the realistic continuum then, on this basis, it will be possible to develop the cosmology as the science, beginning from the endless being, divisible in itself by time, whose model is the non-being or even better - the point which has neither parts nor the extensiveness.
The consequences of such an approach are numerous: the hidden constituents of in dividual areas of the human knowledge will be illuminated; for instance, it will be shown that the theoretical economy deals with the study of combined problems of the psychology (commodity needs), thermodynamics (market, effects of the laws of value, exchange of money for commodities) and the physics (new concepts of space, time and matter have enabled the employment of new power sources and the development of new technologies - all of which decisively influence the economy); then, it could be proved that the political philosophy is concerned with nothing else but the investigation of the deepest laws of physics at the level of social organization and that neurology and psychology do the same but they are concerned only with the human being as an individual person, since in the composition and operation of the human brain the non physical elements are not involved and even in the human society.
If we imagine the entire reality as a graduated whole and if we introduce the infor mation in its deepest and at the same time the most powerful layer (in physics - The Hidden Order of David Bohm),. we shall get a common base for the investigation of so called spiritual and so called material worlds.
The relation : information-energy-matter is of time nature; all information effects are timed and therefore the information shall never effect the energy and the matter from the future. As the result, the abstract rules over concrete, the principles rule over the matter, i.e. the information controls the physical reality.
To discover the ontological center of its unproclaimed philosophy and to compre hend the laws which are common for the exact and humanistic sciences, the modem global civilization must establish a better communication with the ancient Greek doctrine on the Being and the One. This means that this ancient philosophy must be reinterpreted. Starting from the mathematicized notion of the Eleic Being (continuum), the principles and tenets which will simultaneously be valid for cosmology, mathematics and physics as well as for economy and ethics, political philosophy, -
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(cognitive) psychology, etc., may be deduced then checked by induction. Is this too strong request and whether an attainable goal is in question?
Doubtlessly this is very difficult, and in their effort to this respect the biggest phi losophers like Plato (State and Laws), Leibniz (Mathesis Universally) and others halted in the middle of their way, but anyhow this is the goal which we should strive for; at least let us try to establish common notion of the mathematical and physical continuum. And this is only the beginning since many strict definitions of the onto- logical character do not exist, such as the definitions of the Continuum - Extension, One-Discretuum, Time-Number relations. Also, there is no physical interpretation of zero, continuum and endlessness, there is no the real generic definitions of numbers, that is how they originate, in what sense the numbers are real and what is the deepest function of the numbers in the physical world. Besides, the general notion of the boundary (form) in the ontological sense is unclear, and the position of the form in the physical reality is totally neglected, or better to say its physical interpre tation is neglected. It is possible to predict that by the ontological linking of all facts the ontological way of thinking would finally result in the exact explanation of many other relations as for example the goodness and the energetic equilibrium, the relation between the general notion of evil and pulse change (motion) and, possibly it would also help explaining the complex phenomena such as the connection between the beauty and symmetry (and in the aesthetic sense also the objective), the connection between the purpose and the harmony and the connection between the affliction and art.
On the basis of deduction of seemingly different problems observed in the unrelated science to the same ontological problem, it is possible to formulate a method which will lead to the removal of obstacles preventing formulation of the universal phi losophy of the exact and humanistic science, which will discover the hidden natural causes of the modern supremacy of technical and technological world culture over all other forms of the culture and which will also enable its eruptive development besides all advantages of the conscious preventive corrections of harmful and wrong concepts in the employment of natural resources. This could be achieved best by:
setting a hypothesis on the existence of Physical Continuum as the basic reality
and also its definition;
determining the properties of the physical continuum in the form of a series of
proved theorems (by confirming relation between the notions which define the
inferring the consequences: by formulating the initial stands of the unified ontol-
ogy of the exact and humanistic sciences, using exclusively bivalent logic of the philosophical type.
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This comes as the result of a comparative analysis of the problems of antic cosmo-logical thought before Socrates, the English and French empiricism and positivism (theories of the society and of the philosophical systems of the eighteen and nineteen centuries), philosophy of sciences and logic (history of mathematical ideas, open problems of theoretical physics), history and philosophy of religion, particularly theosophy and buddhist tradition, the Pythagorean mathematics, history of the concepts of time and space, medieval natural philosophy, philosophical works of Albert Einstein and heuristic method of the inventor Nikola Tesla.
In the new global society, cosmology i.e the science united with philosophy, will the most probably replace religion. It is necessary to form a consistent theory which predicts the development of the technological and informatical society on the grounds of synthesis of unsolved issues inherited from the ancient Greek cos mology and modem philosophical research in theoretical physics. On this basis should be given a new exact valuable system in the ethics, economy, psychology and physics. The specific difficulty of the task is in the domain of the philosophical logic by which the dynamic ontology is to be derived from the static concept of the physical continuum with the empiric and axiological consequences. Of the greatest importance, of course, is the new concept of the continuum alone, which makes conceivable direct ontological connection of physics, geometry and arithmetics. Finally, the introduction of the physical interpretation as a criteria of truth would indicate the natural limitation of mathematical, logical and philosophical theories. It will make them even more strict and enable the synthesis of the exact sciences and the philosophy at the deepest level. Today, in the sphere of the formal theories it will be necessary to do the same what Newton did requesting the experiment to be the main criteria for scientific syntheses checking.