INTRODUCTION TO ONTOLOGY OF TIME
Structure and Models
The Metaphysics of New Physics
What is TIME?
TIME is a being, the world itself, all pervasive ultimate level of existence.
The ontology of TIME is a new branch of metaphysics, which conceives of TIME as a being that is as a fundamental, real, and unique infinity. And it can be unique as it is non-spatial and inextensive.
The concept of the unique infinity is the solution to the aporias of the dual nature of infinity, or the synthesis of the concepts of infinitely large and infinitely small/infinitesimal.
Unique infinity is TIME; it is non-spatial and also independent of its parts: space and matter.
Unique infinite reality or unique physical reality or simply physical reality is at the same time both the basis and the whole of the universe. Natural laws are only attributes of this unique infinity, which generates through internal division (through Plato's monads or diereses) all finite phenomena creating what we call space and matter.
The diereses, that is internal self-division of infinity, is the effect of the main property of TIME (that is infinity) - continuity. And just that property of TIME, the continuity, is the most general and basic natural law. Thus we assume that TIME is the fundamental impetus of the whole world of phenomena and that the power of infinity is identical with the power of TIME. Moreover, what we call TIME- is actually a mathematical principle of change, which constantly creates physical world but that solely in the present.
If change is only the mathematics of events, what then is motion? Motion is synchronizing uneven parts of infinity according to magnitude, a necessary effect of the conservation of the general continuity of being that is the continuity of TIME.
Ontology in itself is pre-mathematical reasoning and, therefore, it is more precise than mathematics. The ontology of mathematics has roots in general metaphysics, as all the properties of being are basically mathematical.
The research of Russian- temporologists (especially those of N. A. Kozyrev and the group at Lomonosov University around A.P. Levich) shows that it is quite probable that TIME, formulated as the main natural law, can completely replace the mystical concepts of force and energy. An essential understanding of TIME would make possible the structuring of physical and biological systems, as well as the most profound explanation, prediction, and control of natural processes in general.
Experimenting in physics laboratories worldwide shows that all this is neither mere scientific idealism nor physicalism. The explanation of the effect of TIME brings into contemporary science spiritual components, above all consciousness and ethics.
Philosophy, mathematics, and physics have the same basis as they all deal with the same subject: the study of infinity and its generic power.
The hypothesis on the nature of TIME establishes a unique ontology of all three sciences. Let us also assume that TIME is in the same way philosophical, mathematical, and physical infinity.
Mathematical equivalent of infinity is point in geometry and zero in arithmetic. In physics, apparently, the equivalent of infinity is TIME (the only notion of physical reality independent of finite matter and space).
A consistent ontological system based on the concept of TIME as a being requires a strict deduction from a simple and inevitably substantial definition of infinity.
In order to approach this problem it is necessary to accept the principle of extension of the infinity concept, that is, to extend our notion of existence and include such non-spatial entities as point and zero. The reason for this is to make infinity that is TIME the subject of positive science.
However, in order to make it possible to formulate temporal laws (natural and physical) a new understanding of causality is needed.
Causality has no meaning on an ontological level as the creation of the universe, judging by all appearances, is mystical.
The principle of exact causality begins with infinity as cosmogonic effect of an inconceivable cause. It takes the properties of infinity to be the cause for the beginnings of space and matter. This exact causal chain is a chain of effect and cause. It begins with an entity whose properties generate a new entity with new properties and so on and so forth. This causal chain is vertical and it leads to more and more complex entities: infinity and its properties; elements of space structure, their properties; complex material systems, their properties.
The criterion for truth is existence, that is, the belief that if something exists in any form, then it is true.
The criterion for generic power is having properties, that is, if an entity has certain properties, then those properties inevitably generate a new entity.
The criterion for modeling is established as congruence, that is, if a model has a univocal correspondence with the entity, then it is identical with it, for example: TIME and point, infinity and zero.
In deducing the ontology of TIME, Plato's logic is followed: general, particular, individual, that is, Euclid's vertical scheme: simple-complex.
So, this reasoning has as its basis ontological definition of TIME as a unique definition of infinity or being, conceived of as a non-spatial entity. In space it is an inextended point, it precedes extension, parts and matter; it is real, unique and immovable.
Non-spatial infinity in fact corresponds to the concept of non-being, but then it is positively defined as purely temporal entity and basic physical reality, that is, physical TIME is physical infinity and vice versa. Defining the concept of physical infinity and its attributes is the same as understanding eternity or TIME.
Concepts such as unique infinity, infinity, TIME, and eternity have the same content.
Genesis of Space from TIME
TIME as the whole is infinite and, naturally, it has no form. It is a formless essence. Accordingly, internal forms of TIME are in fact external forms of space parts. This is not contradictory, as basically the finite part of TIME is a constituent element of space. Consequently, the essence of TIME and space is qualitatively the same. Matter is only a temporal structure of space, for example, it has the same essence as space and TIME, and the quality of essence is unalterable.
Another question also raised here is the one of continuity, which has several modi. It can be general in terms of internal and external continuity of TIME, that is infinity or eternity, then elementary in terms of internal TIME or internal continuity of parts of discrete space, and finally internal in terms of internal TIME or internal continuity of a system - which is an attribute of space and matter.
In the direction from infinite to finite, general continuity makes the process of divisibility irreversible. The division of infinity generates parts of space and matter, while the opposite is impossible. The division of matter and space results only in their new parts, for the continuity of a part is independent of its size and this is the reason why infinite division does not result in finite indivisible particle - element.
If, in addition, we assume that the basic type of ordering is temporal continuity and that all other types originate from this one, that is, that the temporal structuring is the basis for all other structuring and, furthermore, that the essence of each structuring is temporality, then continuity could possibly exist as a cardinal number, as a quantity, which generates magnitude the same way as infinite precedes finite or whole parts, that is, the same way as TIME precedes the existence of space and matter.
The existence of number is graded, that is, number exists as quantity or order and, at the same time, also as relation or order of magnitude and as algorithm or order of change, a succession.
Quantity relates to magnitude as TIME to space or law to matter. Measuring does not mean containing smaller parts as it is practically taken to be in contemporary mathematics, that is, from such a point of view division of a unit is possible only in such a way that new units are generated and hence what we call mathematical continuum by quantity is in fact - a unit or number one.
But if we try to define the concept of wholeness through the concepts of internal and external boundary, we will discover three types of wholeness: infinite or simple, which like TIME has only internal boundaries, then finite or limited wholeness, which has only external boundaries like elements of discrete space, and relative or complex wholeness, which, like matter, has both internal and external boundaries.
If we organize Aristotle's concept of boundaries vertically, then TIME as real infinity is what he called the end of anything. It is followed by boundary with dual nature, the one, which at the same time connects and separates.
The boundary, which is internal and inextended and which only connects, belongs to the level of infinity, while the outer boundary or relation, which at the same time connects and separates, belongs to the level of space and matter, to the finite.
Parallel Models of TIME
If we imagine parallel models of TIME we will see that a complete correspondence of ontology, mathematics and physics is possible.
If we take as a model for the World such an abstract concept as TIME and use it to define the total wholeness of our universe unique, fundamental, and real infinity in itself - the ontological being - then it is inevitably associated with mathematical models, which express the same in a better and precise way.
Geometrically, the model of TIME is what has no parts and precedes the finite, that is, the dimension of length, value, and parts. Naturally, point is not seen as an artefact but as an entity, which has a real and, in a more narrow sense, physical existence.
If seen from arithmetical point of view, TIME corresponds to a number without quantity, zero, which precedes quantities and arithmetic individuals or numbers, and which is basis of all mathematical operations as it generates the continuity of numbers.
A physical model of TIME is certainly very complex and for its complete description we lack the distinct terms without redundant meanings. However, it can be said that a physical model of TIME is as follows: eternal duration with the centre of symmetry in the present and a succession as a memory-effect.
This imposes a radical assumption: the attributes of unique infinity are at the same time the attributes of TIME.
Let us first consider the attributes of infinity, for a step more abstract than that of eleatic concept of being. For the eleatic philosophers, being was infinitely extended and therefore, as it was said at the very beginning, this view held an internal contradiction: the clash between the largest and the infinitesimal, as infinite large and infinite small exclude each other.
Making a judgment about infinity based on the concept of dimension is incorrect and is impossible to be seen logically as something consistent. Therefore, in order to avoid dialectics, Euclid's point, a non-spatial physical entity, was introduced. This inevitably led to formulating attributes of such a basic reality, which is non-spatial, and also to the understanding that the mysterious object that was studied in this way was nothing else but TIME.
Properties of TIME
(a) Non-spatiality, that is, its part is identical with its whole. How is it possible?
Non-spatial entity consists of inextensive elements; the part that is supposed to be non-spatial is also inextensive, the inextensive part is the same as the inextensive whole. The logic of this conclusion is found in Leibniz's principle of identity of the indiscernible.
TIME or unique infinity is prior to the existence of space and the attributes of this entity cannot be adequately expressed with the concepts based on the experience of dimension, such as larger and smaller, e.g. infinitely large and infinitely small. A logical conclusion is: unique infinity is solely a temporal entity and it is independent of space.
(b) Inextensivness, that is, TIME consists of non-extensive centers and, as Aurelius Augustine said, in fact there is only the present in which every TIME measurement is carried out. Why so?
Infinity is centrally symmetrical; the centers of infinity are anywhere, whatever number, they are non-extensive, all of them and each of them individually are identical with the infinity as a whole. It can be said that infinity is a sum of non-extensive centers. Each centre of infinity is at the same TIME the beginning, the end and the centre of everything that is finite, of the entire space and matter. TIME obviously limits space and matter, and it seems that it does more than that, it generates them.
(c) Continuity, that is, TIME like infinity has only interior. Obviously, infinity has solely internal boundaries and those - expressed in Aristotle's terms of a single nature: it has boundaries that only connect. In contrast to TIME, the space-parts have external boundaries, which are of dual nature (separating-connecting).
(d) Homogeneity, which in this case is defined as congruence of centre and periphery.
This is the attribute of point and zero, which are mathematical models of eternity. Point and zero are simply self-identical in the whole of the same structure.
In contrast to the infinite whole, the finite whole, individual or part is twice self-identical, by boundaries and by content.
(e) Non-locality, that is, TIME like infinity has only centers.
Infinity is a point, and centers are also points. What is happening here is the correspondence of part and whole.
A non-extensive point does not take place but has a temporal position, which can be defined only in relation to the discretuum of space. Accordingly, in the world in which space and matter already exist, an non-extensive point has an unlimited number of possible positions in coexistence, that is TIME has no periphery, it has only a centre. Strictly speaking, a point is not an element of space at all, but a centre and an end of space at the same TIME. Above that, the power of a point is to generate space dimensions.
Space has no beginning as it appears in discrete wholes. From the physical point of view, zero space is TIME.
(f) Polycentricism cause infinity, that is, eternity, has however many centers in coexistence.
As can be seen, the properties of infinity are not independent of one another; they are series of steps building some kind of generic ladder: from non-extensiveness (which consists of non-extensive centers) follows the non-locality of TIME, which only consists of various present centers. From non-locality follows polycentricism, and from polycentricism follows the generating of relations.
(g) Divisibility, that is, polycentricism of infinity facilitates establishing internal relations and thereby makes infinity divisible.
If Plato, Euclid, and Leibniz's monad, that is Plato's point of emanation, and Augustine's present moment are conceived of as unique non-spatial infinity, then Plato's dieresis, the power of self-division of infinite whole, will necessarily result from polycentricism.
Unique non-spatial infinity has non-extensive centres whose relations are parts of space; therefore, TIME generates space as a relation of present moments.
(h) Immobility, because the centre, the beginning, and the end of TIME (or infinity) are identical.
Due to general continuity, which means that it has solely the interior, infinity is not mobile, and due to homogeneity, the congruence of centre and periphery, no motion in terms of change of place of infinity's internal parts is possible.
The nature of our sensorial perception of motion is more profound than the concept of pushing of objects through a continual and passive space at the velocity whose standard of measurement is conventional TIME, seconds. Change, which has been given to us as everyday experience of motion, is something completely different. That is re-structuring of space and matter according to TIME, existential frequency.
(i) Ordering, because the centers of infinity are in constant order, the order of natural numbers 0,1,2,3...
Ordering results directly from polycentricism and these are the properties that generate space and numbers, the principle of constant temporal order or temporality, which is the main cause of the general change.
j) Isotropy, because infinity is centrally symmetrical in relation to each of its centers and all its centers in coexistence.
Isotropic also means immovable, while the opposite does not apply. Space and matter can be both immovable and anisotropic. But on the level of infinity, where continuity is in force, immovability also means isotropy, as well as homogeneity.
The comparison of theoretical conclusions and experiences shows that the postulates on non-spatial nature of infinity very well reflect our everyday experience of TIME.
For the sake of more precise reasoning, let us adopt the following operational models of TIME, some of which have already been mentioned: they are, ontological - momentum or the present moment; geometrical - point; arithmetical - zero; and physical - momenta, that is present moments in continuity relation. What we should have in mind here is that, according to Augustine's views, there is no succession at all but only constant changes in the present. This is why he explicitly repudiates TIME metric, contending that the motion of objects is independent of TIME and that TIME can be measured by comparing various motions.
And indeed, empirically and theoretically, whole space and matter have a single temporal position in which their existence is possible and that is the present. Accordingly, the whole of TIME is momentum, that is, present moment corresponding with non-spatial infinity.
If the present is conceived of as part of eternal present, then what follows is the exact coincidence of the part and the whole. Likewise, the concept of the present, which is at the same time the future of the past and the past of the future, annuls the very cause, as in the present, the cause (which is in the present) and the effect (which is in the future) are equated.
The TIME of everyday experience is non-spatial infinity given directly as momentum, now, this very moment of the present.
The whole TIME in experience is also given directly as however many moments of the continual present, that is, as eternity.
According to the already discussed properties of infinity, TIME consists of present moments, which are non-extensive, that is, TIME precedes space and it is independent of it, and the present moments are the coexistent centers of TIME.
Everyday experience also gives evidence that TIME cannot be avoided, for example, that atemporality is impossible, and that there is no existence outside of TIME, be it matter or space. Consequently, continuity is another common interconnecting property of infinity and TIME, it is impossible to move out of them, they have inside only.
It seems to us that all the moments in the present are alike and that a present moment is no different in anything from the moments of the past, presents, or those of future presents. This is what empirical homogeneity is about.
Furthermore, in experience it seems to us that the moments in succession are all the same, and that TIME appears as unchangeable standard for all the changes of our world. To us, all the moments are of the same nature.
Like infinity, TIME is to us homogeneous, that is, the very same, all of the same structure, for the centre, the beginning, and the end exactly coincide - and that is momentum.
Has TIME got absolute periphery at all? If we consistently draw a conclusion out of homogeneity, then the answer is no, it does not have it, but each centre of TIME is a relative periphery of another one. In fact, TIME has only centers and each moment of the present is the centre of the whole TIME, eternity.
TIME as the Cause of Part Creation
Let us consider more closely the proposition about the polycentricism of TIME, that is, that TIME has however many centers in coexistence.
The question about the quantity of present moments will be answered by everybody as follows: as many as there are physical, for example, biological systems in the cosmos, therefore: infinitely many. This is the empirical and theoretical definition of simultaneity. Thus, it seems to us that TIME has an unlimited number of various individual presents, and, also that all the moments are in coexistence, just like all the centers of infinity.
If it were true, the latter possibility, that is, the possibility that the same moment of the present belongs to all the structures in the cosmos, would mean that all individual oscillation of those structures have to be identical on the local level, that is, that all the cosmic systems, oscillating the same way, would have a destiny identical to the detail, and this is obviously not the case. The condition for simultaneity is multicentricity of TIME that is coexistence of moments, for only so simultaneity can be applied to physical and bio-systems with various periods of oscillation, that is, various distinctive internal TIMES.
Self-divisibility is probably the most clearly defined property of TIME conceived as non-spatial infinity, as polycentricism of infinity obviously causes the creation of relations and hence TIME is, like infinity, inevitably self-divisible.
TIME Does Not Flow, It Does Not Move
Immovability of TIME is certainly the hardest to accept, although it follows from the assumption about temporal infinity by which it is asserted that the beginning, the centre, and the end of TIME are consistent. Is this really so?
The end of TIME is at now, because it is the end of the past. The beginning of TIME is at now because it is the beginning of the future. The centre of TIME is also now because every momentum divides TIME into unlimited halves: the past and the future.
From the topological point of view, a question can arise as to where TIME is. The answer would be: TIME is here and there, if observed from space, TIME is everywhere in space, at any point, at any non-local centre.
Successive instants of the present cannot be separated and their relation is continuity, and what is continuously infinite is obviously immovable.
If we imagine that the instants of some presents are possible boundaries of TIME periods, we still cannot imagine those same instants as consecutive, because they are in relation of continuity, and that is contrary to consecutiveness. And, in spite of Peanes' axiom according to which zero is neither at the beginning nor at the end of a natural number, the solution is in accepting zero as universal boundary, that is, it is zero that determines boundaries between the elements of an order. From the mathematical point of view, whenever we have more than one element in front of us, we do have order; a complete non-ordering of elements and chaos in a general sense are impossible.
In science it is considered, although to a great extent tacitly, that only TIME moves, has flow, flows, passes. If it were so, than any, if at all precise measurement of the velocity of physical processes should undoubtedly begin with the measurement of the speed of the TIME flow itself or otherwise the measurement of movement would have no scientific significance and the prediction of spatial positions of moving bodies would not be possible. If, for example, TIME had a changeable flow, if it moved acceleratively, it is clear that in this case the measuring of various velocities of physical processes by a mobile TIME measure, whose speed is unknown, would give totally irregular and inapplicable results.
Finally, what is the relationship of TIME and number by which we express TIME?
We establish a second by comparing two processes of different velocity. The result is a number that shows the relation of various velocities for the same space. TIME is a certain number. And, let us play now! If TIME moves what happens to TIME number? If a number expresses velocity, what happens to the velocity of that number? Can a number move and what does the possible motion of a number look like?
Let us examine the analogy with some mathematical operations. If I divide some apples among some friends, I have in a way given them a certain number. But if I divide some numbers among them, it does not mean that I have given them apples.
In brief, the experience of an ordinary measuring of TIME by clock tells us that TIME is independent of the velocity of the measured processes. And it can be independent only if it is immovable.
TIME is a quantity, it has the nature of a number, and not of a magnitude, and therefore it does not move, it does not flow.
If TIME had a constant course of uniform motion, as viewed by Newton, then in measuring TIME by clocks, that is in seconds, the measuring of TIME would be separated from its duration, so that the physical processes, with the assumed various rates would have the same duration for us, while those with the assumed same rate, would have various durations. Consequently, no presumption concerning the results of physical processes can be made. If it were so, it would already be observed in experiments. Contrary to that, the conventional TIME or laboratory second is a very precise gnoseological instrument, which is illustrated by Kepler's law and also Galileo's law of free fall. The rhythm of measurement is incomparably faster there than the rhythm of processes, and a second is very reliable. From our experience we know that the shorter the rhythmical units for some measurements are, the more precisely a process is described.
However, in quantum mechanics these processes are very short so that they cannot be registered by the concept of laboratory second in a satisfactory way.
But if the hypothesis on internal TIME of physical system, that is atom, is introduced into physics it will be possible for the positions of subatomic structures to develop, like a sequence of film photogram, in phases given by internal atomic TIME. It will be possible to develop the system of exact prediction of all subatomic processes.
The biggest obstacle to the introduction of internal TIME as an international factor of atomic structure is the contemporary post-relativistic panicky avoidance of the concept of synchronism; although it is clear to everyone that synchronism is the basis of independent interaction of parts of any physical system, as well as the atomic system.
Obviously, this is not so simple and it has to be preceded by a more profound presumption of generating space from TIME and matter from space, which will allow replacing the concepts of force and energy, as the causes of change, with more general law of temporal ordering.
TIME continuum is constant because the ordering of the centers of infinity is also constant and corresponding with the natural numbers 0, 1, 2, 3... Etc.
Properties of TIME Are the Same for the Entire Space and All Matter
The isotropy of TIME lies in its symmetry. Like infinity, TIME is centrally symmetrical in relation to each of its centers and to all its centers in coexistence.
Each instant of the present, momentum, is a centre of the whole TIME and, as TIME it is not spatial, it can be symmetrical only in relation to its own centers, or moments. TIME, like infinity, has a multicentral symmetry.
The property of infinity to have however many parallel centers leads to the genesis of space and leads us into its structure. Namely, the centers of infinity are inter-correspondent beginnings, ends, and centers of space. Likewise, the centers of infinity are equal with one another, which means that they have no antecedents and that each centre is original. They are also of the same power, equipotent, as in each centre of infinity there is the beginning and the end of radius and the centre of sphere. Consequently, the centers are radially ordered, that is, the relation of whichever two centers of infinity is the radius of the sphere. What we also find here is elementary continuity, as between two centers of infinity there are no other points or centers, that is, the relation of two centers of infinity has continual content and, therefore, the quality of spatial elements is the same everywhere.
This establishes the assertion that space exists only on the level of relation.
If considered separately from matter, the basic constitutive elements of space - line, plane, angle - are all of non-sensorial nature. The elements that we call Euclidean elements of space are in fact physical TIME laws of space-matter structuring.
Infinity is immovable and all its centers are equally immovable. The consequence of the immobility of equipotent centers of infinity is their radial relation, as whichever two centers of infinity define identical sphere areas. The outer boundaries of these areas (also points) have a dual nature; at the same time they differentiate infinity into final parts and unite them with it. This interior self-decomposition of infinity creates momentum or the present as a relation of two or more centers of infinity and it is the first step in spatialisation of TIME: generating temporal differential (radius) and from it sphere with a diameter, or dimension with one and the same TIME-coordinate (surface n), thus creating space.
The specific nature of physical laws of lower order than the fundamental law of temporal continuity is neither real as TIME nor sensory as matter, but virtual and it is congruent with mathematical objects.
The nature of mathematical operations, as well as the laws of physics, is temporal while geometrical and arithmetical objects are spatial, that is, materialistic.
Infinity has internal parts and TIME, likewise, has the whole discrete of space in itself.
Because of its properties TIME generates space and from it matter, as a special case of the synchrony of the space structure, that is, matter is formed under the -effect of internal TIME onto even parts of space.
Asynchronous space is in the same relation with synchronous space as empty space with physical system.
Present-day conception of TIME in physics is a reduced empirical model. It has been deprived of ontology and understanding of TIME in physical experiments is reduced to spatial measuring, without any deeper explanations. In brief, the concept of TIME in contemporary experimental physics is much shallower than the one obtained through ordinary human experience.
In contemporary scientific practice there are two contradictory concepts of the present: in determining synchronicity, the assumption is that the multitude of present moments coexists, and in determining of continuity, that is, periods, it is assumed that there is coexistence of successive presents. It is obvious that this problem can easily be solved by the hypothesis on non-spatiality of TIME and its generic property.
The other problem of an empirical concept of TIME in physics arises from the fact that the past seems to be completely ordered in relation to the future. In empirical memory TIME appears to be asymmetrical. This problem is solved by the method of copying the temporal order of quantities onto a spatial order of magnitude so that the future appears as an order of macro-objects. This lays a good basis for exact foundation of astrology, as even the most rigid scientific minds do not completely deny a certain correlation with real events.
How Many Centers of Infinity Are in Coexistence?
Natural number appears as a quantity of possible centres of real physical infinity, that is, quantity of beginnings of physical TIME.
The continuity of the elements of physical TIME with the beginning at any non-local centre of infinity is an operation of addition, addition of one by one. So, counting is a temporal law of constant order of non-spatial elements of TIME, that is, counting of the possible centers of infinity, or geometrically – of points. If we take TIME as a whole, then all points of TIME are indiscernible.
Infinite number is zero and the biggest number does not exist, that is, it must be finite, but not limited by quantity (n + 1). And, in conclusion: continuity is the way of pre-ordering of the whole TIME, whereas ordering is its derivation. What follows from this is that ordering, that is, synchronism or present, can relate only to parts, space, and matter.
What puzzles philosophers most is motion, the inexorability of change. Let us try to define motion as a change of order.
The causes of all changes are physical laws. What if TIME causes the change of order, and if it is unchangeable, as all other physical laws are? This is most probably the reason why TIME has no flow and why it does not flow. It is clear that the other physical laws have no flow either and that they do not change by themselves.
If TIME moved in any way, it would not be isotropic. TIME has unchangeable order and moments are in constant relations, and for that reason it is possible, by changing the order of magnitude and structure, to build the experience of alternative sensory realities, of different presents.
The analogy is complete, as physical laws are independent of the objects whose change they cause. TIME does not change and it does not move; what changes and moves is space and matter.
It has already been pointed out that TIME is a physical infinity and its property continuity is the basic natural law. This property of infinity IS generally known; however, in spite of this, there is no deductive physical theory based on infinity and continuity and this is the reason why TIME has not yet been scientifically understood.
Which Are the Scientific Goals in the Research of TIME and Where Does the Human Need for This Come From?
Pythagorean School: Some say that TIME is the motion of everything, and others say that it is sphere itself. Pythagoras said that TIME is the sphere of the universal. Judging by this sentence it can be assumed that for the Pythagoreans TIME was something in which all the rest was contained.
According to Diels, Eudem writes the following about Pythagoras' followers and their concept of TIME: Someone might be confused over the question whether the same TIME ever re-occurs or not; but, if someone believed Pythagoreans that the same things will happen at the same number, and that, holding a small stick in my hands I will be teaching you again while you will be sitting again the same way, and that all the rest will be the same, then according to Pythagoras, it will be the same TIME. For, if the motion is the same, and if many other things are the same, if that which comes before and that after are the same and, finally, their number is the same: then all things are the same and, therefore, TIME returns.
Here is how Aristotle sums up harmony, that is, Pythagorean mathematics of nature: all things, in the literal meaning of the word, consist of numbers. The bodies themselves are constructed of numbers; however, as numbers have no finally divisible structure, the elements of numbers are in fact the elements of everything existing. Units have magnitude. The Pythagoreans spoke of numbers as if they were the actual matter that things were constructed of. In respect of the unity of parts of infinity and their limits, numbers are the substance that forms the elementary basis of everything else. There is also a purely material and proportional structure of concordant tones of a scale. The endless variety of sounds can be completely ordered and reduced to a unique quality by a simple quantitative law of proportion.
Augustine says that TIME did not exist before the creation. And he addresses god: Your years neither go nor come, and ours go and come so that all of them can come. All your years stay, for they are immobile; they do not go being driven away by the coming ones, because they do not pass, while ours will be only when all of them cease to be. Your years are one day, and your day is not every day, but today, for your present day does not withdraw from the next day, and it does not come after the previous one.
The concept of TIME is linked solely with human experience and the past and the future are at the same TIME thought of as the present, that is, all the three TIMES are identical in mind.
And indeed we have to agree with Augustine not only that TIME is a subjective factor and that it is absurd to talk about TIME prior to Genesis, but also with the seemingly contradictory fact that only the present can be measured, that is, that TIME that has no duration. Why so? The present is measured so that instead of it what is measured is in fact the space, that is, that which is dimensional, whereas the present itself remains unperceived. Hence, the present, which has no duration because it is only an instant, does not appear in measurement as TIME, but it appears as space. Certainly, the past and the future cannot be measured, not even like the present, indirectly through space, in fact they cannot be measured at all, because the past has already passed and the future has not come yet, that is, neither the past nor the future exist.
Having denied the existence of both past and future, Augustine unites TIME in the present of past events, the present of present events and the present of future events.
For Galileo, TIME is the rhythm of the impetus of gravitation, and for him temporal sequences have purely numerical character, so that by means of the force diagrams he reduces gravitation to the geometry of space, which was later followed by Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity. Namely, in his experiments with gravitation, Galileo noticed that during the free fall of bodies, the rate of the path increase behaves as the odd numbers (1, 3, 5...), in case of equal successive TIME intervals.
Contrary to Archimedes who said that the concept of TIME is scientifically unnecessary and that it should be expelled from physics, in his law of free fall Galileo did the contrary. He replaced force by TIME, thus continuing Kepler's idea, who in his laws of celestial mechanics, which have not been corrected to the present day, derived all his formulas in a Pythagorean way, that is, solely by spheres of TIME.
Taking the viewpoint that all astronomical observation of irregularities in motion are only seeming, Through his celestial laws Kepler mathematically takes all his astronomical results back to the harmonious, Pythagorean and spherical, originally natural order. For, if continuity is being maintained anywhere, then it is observed in nature only in synchronism, that is, in dynamical balance: Kepler's second law, which is about the elliptical motion of planets, for example, implies that various speeds of planets of solar system and various radii of their distances from the sun, as well as their various masses and various curve lines of their paths, follow the unique law of dynamic synchronicity, as according to the first law the radius vectors of the planets describe equal areas in equal TIMES and according to the third law they form both mathematically and physically a number of celestial spheres each of which also has its musical expression, as for example, the Earth plays a scale in minor key, Jupiter a scale in major key, and in fact the whole solar system of ours is just one musical and spherical celestial orchestra.
His teacher Isaac Barrow, professor at Trinity College, had an enormous influence on Newton.
Barrow insists on the clarification of the term TIME, and after Galileo, he is the first to deal with this problem more seriously as he did in his work, Lectures on Geometry: TIME does not point to real existence, but to a certain ability or possibility of continuous existence, just like space points to the possibility of forming a continuous length.
And as long as we are talking about the absolute and specific nature of TIME, it does not presuppose motion and that to the same extent as it does not presuppose immobility; no matter whether things move or are at rest, whether we sleep or are awake, TIME passes in its uniform way. TIME also comprises that every motion can be measured, and reversely, without motion we cannot perceive the passage of TIME.
Leibniz leaves us a profound thought according to which there is not an elementary quantum of TIME that can be called instant because: Having examined the difference between an instant and a unit, I conclude that a unit is part of any number bigger than a unit, and an instant is not a distinctive part of TIME.
In the chapter of Theory of the Natural Philosophy with the title "Relativity of Space and Time" as well as in the presentation of his very original conception of the unique attractive-repulsive force in nature, Boscovich uses two purely empirical models of TIME: momentum for an infinitesimal moment and tempusculum for any period or duration of TIME. In the coordinate system of his unique force, instead of TIME Boscovich takes intensity as ordinate, and the distances between points of matter as abscissa. In this way, unaware of what he is doing, Boscovich ascribes to TIME the property of intensity and even obtains the image of cosmos stratified in parallel worlds, which are separated by repulsive forces instead of various temporal coordination.
According to Kant, TIME is a priori form of sensuality, a product of transcendental intuition. To him, TIME does not originate from experience; it is a form of apprehension, constituent of a subject.
In TIME, Kant sees a category of our mind of essential value for systematizing our experience, a category with three basic characteristics: duration, succession, and coexistence. Kant concludes that TIME and space are scientifically inconceivable, an assertion that none of the present-day researchers would agree with. Constituent subjects are not final cause of scientific non-transparency of human experience, for; on the other hand, exact prediction of that experience can also be understood as a confirmation of the correct metaphysical assumptions. The latter possibility explains to everyone the obvious evolution of scientific reasoning.
At a scientific gathering in Cologne in 1908 Herman Minkowski, with whom Einstein agreed immediately, presented the following observation for which it can be said that it is generally accepted nowadays: nobody ever noticed any place that it was not at some TIME, or anytime that it was not at some place. The terms introduced by Minkowski in order to make his concept of TIME clearer, were new' at that time: world-point is a unique point of space and TIME or event; world-set is the set of all world-points; world-lines is the duration of a world-point.
With his concept of TIME Herman Minkowski diminished the significance of TIME and space as separate categories and, as he himself said: it is only their special unity that can preserve an independent reality. Or as Herman Weyl expressed it even more clearly: it is a four-dimensional continuum, which is neither TIME nor space. Only the mind that passes through a section of this world can experience that separate part that it encounters and which passes behind it as history, that is, process, which advances in TIME and takes its place in space. And, as the manner of it is not known and never will be, Weyl concludes: the passage of TIME should be conceived as a property of mind, which has no correlate in reality.
What can be noticed immediately is the fact that in mathematical presentation of his four-dimensional spatial-temporal continuum Minkowski makes the same mistake as Descartes. Both of them use mathematics only as means of incomplete description. Namely, Cartesian coordinate system presents both space and TIME with the same geometrical object - straight line - and for both space and TIME Minkowski takes the very same geometrical model, point without going into a deeper discussion on the real interpretation of that point. Neither of them makes any mathematical parallel between space and TIME, which undoubtedly leads to a great confusion in mathematical presentation of physical systems and processes and practically makes it impossible to give more precise explanations of the formulas that put space and TIME in any correlation.
However, it is not necessary to link the notion of existence only for space, spatiality, and dimensional. In science this spontaneously and largely accepted view has come from experience and it has caused a millennium long halt in understanding the real nature of TIME, it has limited and finally stopped its study and use of its properties in engineering and technology. In the encyclopedias of physics and mathematics, as well as in textbooks, one always finds the view: TIME is basic physical value that is not defined.
In the ontology of TIME, as a new branch of metaphysics, one starts from the view that TIME exists as fundamental and non-spatial entity and that it must be defined.
Let us consider the properties of TIME as the prime reality and as ontologically continual being, so that we have continuity as the main property of space and continuum.
TIME, Consciousness, and Awareness
At first sight, the issue of ontological definition of consciousness is not deeply connected with the existence of space and basic elements of matter. However, in actual fact, it is connected through TIME. For this reason, defining consciousness requires not only defining its relationships with TIME, space, and matter, but also relevant ontological definitions of all these concepts. Of course, definitions are hypothetical, but the risk of making these hypotheses should be taken if aiming at establishing basic relations of psychology, physics, and mathematics, which is indispensable for whatever experimental analysis of the phenomenon of consciousness.
Temporalistic standpoint is that consciousness is not separated from natural phenomena, that it is not their passive observer, but that it has the status of the basic cause of cosmic events. The assumed identity, of consciousness and TIME gives even stronger support for this proposition. After all, if we assume that TIME is an active factor of material occurrences and ascribe the status of force to it, we will have good basis to establish causality of spirit and matter. In addition, it must be assumed that matter and space, which are practically and theoretically inseparable, have common unit of construction. But what shall we do with motion?
Let us imagine that there is no motion in cosmos and that what is going on is excitation, composing and decomposing of elements various in numbers but of the same quality and uniformly constructed of the infinite and isotropic world, activating and deactivating carried out by TIME as the main operator of cosmic occurrences.
The activities of temporal operator are analogue with mathematical algorithms. For A and B, whatever they look like, we imagine physical interprets which certainly include spatiality. But any kind of interactive operation performed by A and B or an operation performed on them is inconceivable if TIME was not included some way or the other. There is no atemporal, (out of time), change.
All mathematical objects, geometrical and arithmetical, except point and zero, are spatial. All geometrical operations are performed through points and are basically non-spatial. Likewise, and this is clear by itself, all operations with numbers are also non-spatial.
By leaving motion out of the theoretical assumptions of united science as an illusion of our experience, we would make the quality of geometrical and arithmetical operations equal. That way, through the concept of non-spatiality, not only would a deep connection between geometry and arithmetic be created, but also misconceptions originating from the material world and measuring would be replaced by definitions of theoretical predictions. Judging by all appearances, such notion of the basis of cosmic being is closer to reality than the one that we are given by the current paradigm: eternal motion as a result of unknown cause, TIME as completely passive in physical processes, energy as a modernized concept of force, space as multidimensional and dependant on force, and lastly, matter, space, and TIME, all of them together and each of them individually as infinitely divisible.
However, on the basis of our previously presented cosmological outline, consciousness can be ontologically defined only as continuity, that is, as the main property of spatial continuum. It is consciousness that supports the existence of the whole extensive world.
On one hand, the identity of consciousness and TIME, on the other the identity of TIME and force, make it possible to form a unique original notion of consciousness, TIME and force, ontological continuity. This can be put this way: discontinued phenomena, of which, by the order of complexity, the first is space and the second matter, originate from consciousness. Therefore, consciousness is continuity not only from psychological, anthropological, and religious but also from ontological point of view, and as such it is elementary cosmic phenomenon of the highest order.
How is it possible that TIME, force, consciousness, and continuity are the same thing?
The essence of philosophy is ontology and metaphysical reasoning and everything else (the theory of cognition, ethics, and aesthetics) is to be inferred from ontology.
In defining TIME, ontological analysis has not been applied with mathematical strictness, as it has been in the case of defining space and number in geometry and arithmetic, and as it was attempted in Newton's axiomatisation of mechanics. The main questions in physics are still unanswered and consequently those concerning TIME, from the issue of naming the ultimate units of matter, the elements of the structure of matter, that is, its basic structural unit, to the questions on whether motion is solely obvious or whether it could be considered phenomenon in the domain of perception, or whether it is something real that only has to be explained which many physicists had unsuccessfully tried to do by speaking about vague eternal motion.
The universal basis is the actual unique infinity in all directions with the same properties and the same composition and all the rest results from the existence of infinity itself. Human mind cannot comprehend its genesis by ordinary reasoning because infinity is a borderline concept of reasoning. It precedes logics or ends it, depending which point of view we take.
Many mystics as well as many philosophers engaged in studying the basis of nature agree that the origin of infinity cannot be the subject of logics. How infinity works is the question which science might answer one day, but why the universe was created is probably the question that will remain unanswered forever, at least as far as conventional language of science is concerned and also language in the widest meaning of the word.
The Universe Is Consciousness
Ancient philosopher Melissus from Samos held that since infinities cannot coexist, either space or TIME must be finite.
We have established that non-dimensional space corresponds to the number without quantity, that is, point corresponds to zero. In physics we have equated point with universal TIME which follows its geometrical non-spatiality, as well as its property to be a boundary, which solely connects spatial dimensions, or simply said: space limit is TIME.
In psychology a point is consciousness in matter and space and it appears as continuity of events in interaction that is coexistence of spatial elements which have the same temporal coordination. Consequently, continuity is the basis of cosmic consciousness, in the same way in which synchronous existence of elements in space provide dimensionality.
Universal consciousness is identical to universal TIME. This TIME does not flow like Newton's absolute TIME but it is the simultaneity of all parts of physical infinity, of TIME itself as eternity whose existence preceded everything else. Physics cannot be ontologically founded without this presumption of TIME as independent of space and matter.
Only by Pythagorean hypostatized numbers can we connect mathematics and physics in the deepest way and perceive their common foundation.
However strange it may sound, a new phase of scientific discovery will come when a developed ontology, as fundamental science, unites neurosciences with psychology, theoretical biology, physics, and mathematics into one. Fundamental and simple concept of such an ontology will be consciousness, that key concept unambiguously correspondent with ontological continuity, geometrical point, arithmetical zero, that is, TIME as non-spatial physical reality.
Euclid held that his elements - point, surface, and line - are real body properties, which is completely true. Surface of any physical object has no thickness. It is that surface without thickness that Euclid described and defined in his geometry. Thus, his elements are real properties of reality. This does not have to be proved as it is obvious. However, realism disappears from present-day mathematics; all natural limitations of mathematical systems lose their importance while formalism prevails. Nowadays, mathematics develops without physical interpretations of fundamental concepts, without that Pythagorean guidance for truth and thus loses some of the essentials for its proper foundation.
If we accept that consciousness has no spatiality and that it corresponds to TIME in a physical sense and if we, on the other hand, accept the view that in the functioning of the human brain there are no non-physical elements, then both consciousness and soul must have some common elements with matter, that is, physical interpretation. If consciousness is non-spatial then soul may be spatial. Anima mundi is, maybe, the whole electromagnetic spectrum, total light, as mystics called it.
Only infinity has absolute individuality; it is consciousness, and cosmic soul is the same as all physical space. Arithmetically, in the Pythagorean view, cosmic soul is a number.
Cognition is nothing other than approaching general and simple laws, which are the deepest basis of phenomena. The deeper we think, which means in a more simple way, the more scientific power over phenomena we acquire. And as all most general laws are also the simplest, all the laws of infinite world, and possibly all physical constants may be reduced to one single law, to one single constant, and that means to one single measure. This is what Max Planck believed in.
In psychology, the concept of soul is correspondent with pattern, that is, the principle of the organization of the complex of electromagnetic entities. We define an individual soul as a specific principle of harmony of complex electromagnetic field. Why is this true?
We know from biophysics that brain waves have their spatiality. A brain is an electromagnetic machine that emits within the range of 1/2 Hz to about 50 Hz, which is recorded mostly electrocoencephalically. Those are great lengths, most often dozens of thousands of kilometers-long waves by which our brain instantaneously corresponds with spatially remote events. Harmonic vibration of the cerebral system can also be expressed as a mathematical operation, so that its physical nature is nothing else but a kind of material basis of soul where the characteristic pattern of electromagnetic field defines individuality.
TIME Is the Key to the Technology of the Infinite
Thus, through cosmic consciousness, which is universal TIME, cosmic souls that correspond to any extensiveness and individual soul that corresponds to the pattern of electromagnetic entities organization, we have come to somatic structure, to atomic and molecular level, to the level of the structure of matter itself. But how can temporology be copied to applied sciences?
We have given here a broad outline of a possible system of categorization, which unites special sciences, not artificially, but by creating a common basis for them based on ontology, the strictest of all disciplines, and a purely spiritual view of perception. Other sciences mentioned here, which belong to positive sciences and deal mostly with experiments, are based mainly on hypothetical explanations of physical processes and verification of mathematical prediction of experience. However, in order to change this experience, our spiritual instruments need a metaphysical method for reconsidering current axioms. Criticism of axioms changes science.
Physics with relativity, quantum mechanics with its dated concepts of energy, force, and motion, and mathematics with its formalism, with its separation from reality and physics, are the biggest obstacles to temporalistic deepening of scientific learning.
The problem is the human relationship with the phenomenon, our understanding and explanation, and not the phenomenon itself, for nature knows how to act, and we are the ones who do not know, not even our own mechanisms of survival.
Each activity in space is a TIME-shift. Such experiments are practically innumerable and we witness them all the time; TIME-shift is even a principle more general than that of gravitation and it is a more frequent event in cosmos than free fall, because there is quite a number of motions in the world that are not directly based on gravitation, but all motions are temporal and, all of them without exception comprise TIME-shift, with serious indications that they have been caused by it. It is also obvious that what functions at the constitution of an event is vertical relation of information and material change, that is, the relationship of information and change is always the relation of inequality of forces, as information input of energy is as a rule smaller than energy output of the material change that it causes. The examples for this are numerous: when you call a taxi by telephone, we actuate tons of steel at a distance of a number of kilometers, that is, the energy of the sent information is much smaller than the energy caused by the change. We conclude that the law of conservation of energy applies horizontally, but not vertically. In the structure of an event, the cause and effect have various energy charge and they are not related the way as they are in the classical physical law of action and reaction.
Up to the present, science as well as the whole of human civilization, both in humanistic and scientific spheres including mythology and religion, have been founded on the intuition of space and force derived from the perception of motion. Yet what it really is about nowadays is a need for a complete change, a turnabout: deep understanding of TIME as the origin of cosmic occurrences and the major concept whose substantial defining would eliminate from science force and space as mental obstacles, thus eliminating all other illusions of the real world. It will open exact spirituality of a higher order, which will control the space and matter quite freely.
And, finally to ask once again: Is not each physical system, from crystals and minerals to plants and man, in its essence only a TIME machine, a natural TIME machine? And doesn't it just point to simple universality of TIME, to ultimate simplicity of its entity, to continuity, point and zero, from which, as from the most ancient conceptions a new and possibly true, purely deductive, and ontology- based cosmological theory may originate?